Cyberterrorism is a kind of crime, performed using computers, networks, and the internet. Today, several crimes are reporting over the internet daily. And these crimes are hurting people, property, and even the governments. Digital equipment has made the crime easier.
They are hackers, who are experts in leaking the data, emitting viruses and worms. They are so technical in their expertise that they are hardly captured. Michael Cross, in his book, “Scene of the cybercrime,” defines, “Cybercrime is a broad and generic term that refers to crimes committed using computers and the internet and can generally be defined as a sub-category of computer crime.”
Thus it has a vast generic and many kinds. It is committed through various means. But laws have been originated to manipulate cyber crimes.
Classification of cyberterrorism:
Cyberterrorism is a broad term, as Michael Cross has defined in his book. It has many names and spheres. It is known as cyberwarfare, cybercrime, and cybernetic. Similarly, digital crime, internet warfare, and e-crime are some other names of cyberterrorism.
Also, many of the people get targeted by cybercrimes daily so that they would be familiar with these terms. Cybercrime has three kinds. These three domain covers a considerable number of crimes over the internet.
Crime against people
First, there is a crime against people. It involves harassment through computers, credit card fraud, human trafficking, and child pornography. People get harassed and targeted for money and other means through computers. Human trafficking also committed through different networks.
People are tortured extremely, and to that extent that they commit suicide. Child pornography is another kind of cyberterrorism, where children are exploited and tortured sexually and mentally through pornography. “Child pornography and the internet represent an almost paradigmatically example of contemporary crime – the bringing together of sexual exploitation of children and the new technologies “(Max Taylor).
Crime against property
Second, there is a crime against property through the internet. Here computers are targeted for money, business, and property. It involves DDOS attack, copyright, IPR violations, and virus transmission. Vicky NGO-LAM, in her article, ” Cybercrime: types, examples, and what your business can do” placed data on how often hackers have attacked large companies.
“In 2013-2016 Yahoo experienced a data breach which resulted in the theft of 3 billion user accounts (got private information and password), in 2014 US retailer Home Depot’s point of sale systems were breaded (stole 50 million credit cards), in 2017, the Wannacry attack allegedly launched by North Korea, unleashed a type of Ransomware which not only locks down content on user devices but also rapidly spread itself”. People lost billions of dollars every year because of digital criminals.
Crime against government
Third, we have a crime against the government. It is one of the severe crime happened over the internet. It is an attack over the nation’s sovereignty. It includes hacking over a Broadcom spectrum.
Accessing confidential information, cyberwarfare, pirated software, and cyberterrorism are also come up in this category. Lach.J Janczewski says about warfare, “Information warfare is defined as a planned attack by nations or their agents against information and computer system, computer programs, and data that result in enemy losses”.
This is the reason why every government is now focusing on its cyber system to make it protective from hackers and enemies.
Means of cyberterrorism:
Cyberterrorism is committed through different means, though the mode of hacking and crime is computers and the internet. Hackers use different means and manners that include: Email bombing, data diddling, salami attack, logic bombs, virus and worms attack, and denial of service attack. Networks of networks are involved in cyberterrorism. Even social media is not devoid of cybercrimes.
Hackers are experts in their domain such that they hack hundreds of social media accounts. This act has made people insecure about their privacy over social media. Also, they are fully supported by organizations that facilitate security, and that’s the reason they are not easy to grab and grip. Sometimes their attack is too diverse to be handled by IT professionals and other hackers.
Cyberterrorism and Law
Laws about cybercrimes are struggling hard to control the number of crimes over the internet. There is a special law that deals with cybernetic issues. It covers all the cybernetic problems and suggests punishments for cybercriminals and hackers. Google, Yahoo, and other social media sites are also too strict about the security of their customers.
People have to verify their identity several times before opening a single account on the internet. Moreover, Google and other cites banned or blocked the stories that they felt suspicious. Susan W. Brenner, in her book, “Cybercrime and the law,” describes the challenges, issues, and outcomes of cybercrimes in detail. She also discusses what the law says about cybercriminals. According to the book, there was no law for cybercrimes before the 1970s, but in 1977, “Senator Abraham Ribicoff of Connecticut introduced the federal computer system protection act into congress.” Regulations keep on changing from time to time.
Still, no much improvement was there by 1999 when a “fifteen years old boy, Jonathan James, hacked thirteen computers used by National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the agency’s Marshall space flight center in Huntsville, Alabama.” James got caught, but he didn’t accept his act as punishable. However, while comprehending the complexity of cyberterrorism now, law enforcement departments are suggesting vengeful and severe punishments for cybercriminals.
Now hacking is not as easy as it was before. Strike rules and regulations have lessened the hacking. Also, people are now getting mature towards cybercrimes. They are taking it seriously. Even on social media, the security of the person is measured closely.
An Overview of Cyberterrorism
To sum-up, we can say that cybercrime is a vast area. The rapid use of computers, the internet, and networks is adding a massive number of cybercrimes. Several people, great companies, and huge organizations have become the target of cyberterrorism. In this respect, many of the precautions and steps are needed on a broader perspective to avoid these crimes.
BY: SADIA ALI